تحول بازنمایی دلبستگی و حساسیت مادرانه

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

2 استاد دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 دانشیار دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

4 استادیار دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش تعیین تغییرات بازنمایی و دلبستگی مادرانه به عنوان عناصر مهم نظام مراقبت‌کنندگی در طول تحول است. 60 زوج مادر و کودک در فاصله سنی 18 تا 60 ماهگی به وسیله پرسشنامه دلبستگی بزرگسال (هازن و شیور، 1987)، مصاحبه مدل درون‎کاری کودک (زینه، بنویت، بارتون، هیرشبرگ و ریگان، 1994)، ابزار درجه‎بندی رفتار مادرانه (پدرسون، موران و بنتو، 1999) و ابزار سنجش دلبستگی کودک (واترز و دینز، 1985) مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. داده‌های پژوهش به وسیلة آزمون آماری خی‌دو مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند و تحلیل آماری نشان داد تفاوت چشمگیری میان ارزش مشاهده‌شده و مورد انتظار، در متغیرهای پژوهش در سنین متفاوت وجود دارد. نتایج حاکی از این بود که مادران کودکان 40-36 ماهه در مقایسه با مادران کودکان کوچک‎تر و بزرگ‎تر به احتمال بیشتری بازنمایی نامتعادل و حساسیت پایین نشان دادند. این امر می‌تواند درنتیجة بروز رفتارهای استقلال‎طلبانه و منفی‎گرایانه بیشتر در این دورة سنی و دشواری هماهنگ کردن خود با نیازهای جدید کودک از سوی مادر باشد. درنتیجه، مراقب ممکن است قادر به حفظ نقش خود به عنوان یک پایگاه ایمن، حساس و همگام با سرعت تغییر در کودک نباشد. این یافته تلویحاتی در مورد تأثیر و نقش رابطه مادر ـ کودک طی این دوره تحول بر ایمنی دلبستگی کودک و لزوم مداخلات آموزشی متناسب با سن به مادران دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

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