رابطۀ بافت اجتماعی کلاس با درگیری تحصیلی: نقش واسطه‎ای فرایندهای نظام خود، انگیزش و هیجان‎های تحصیلی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه سمنان

2 دانشیار دانشگاه سمنان

3 استادیار دانشگاه سمنان

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش تعیین نقش واسطه‌ای فرایندهای نظام خود، انگیزش و هیجان‎های تحصیلی در رابطۀ بین بافت اجتماعی کلاس و درگیری تحصیلی بود. بدین منظور ۵۸۶ دانش‌آموز دختر و پسر پایۀ نهم متوسطۀ شهر تهران انتخاب شدند و پرسشنامه‌های درگیری تحصیلی (ریو و تی‌سنگ، ۲۰۱۱) و هیجان‌های تحصیلی (پکران و دیگران، 200۵) و مقیاس‌های انگیزش تحصیلی (والرند و دیگران، 1989)، ارضای نیازهای اساسی روان‌شناختی (فیلاک و شلدون،  2003)، حمایت هیجانی معلم (ساکیز، 2007)، حمایت از استقلال عمل (بلک‌برن، ۱۹۹۸) و حمایت هیجانی همسالان (جانسون و دیگران، 1983) را تکمیل کردند. ارتباط بین متغیرها با استفاده از مدلی ساختاری به روش تحلیل مسیر آزمون شد. نتایج تحلیل مسیر نشان داد بافت اجتماعی کلاس (شامل حمایت هیجانی معلم، حمایت از استقلال عمل و حمایت هیجانی همسالان) از چندین مسیر بر درگیری تحصیلی اثر ساختاری دارد. در مهم‌ترین مسیر عوامل بافت اجتماعی کلاس بر فرایندهای نظام خود (ارضای نیاز استقلال عمل، ارضای نیاز صلاحیت و ارضای نیاز ارتباط) اثر ساختاری داشت و این فرایندها بر انگیزش تحصیلی به طور ساختاری تأثیر می‌گذاشت. انگیزش بر هیجان‌های تحصیلی اثر ساختاری داشت و هیجان‌ها نیز بر درگیری تحصیلی به طور ساختاری تأثیر می‌گذاشت. بنابراین عوامل بافت اجتماعی کلاس به واسطۀ فرایندهای نظام خود، انگیزش و هیجان‌های تحصیلی بر درگیری تحصیلی تأثیر گذاشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


ابراهیمی، س.، پاکدامن، ش. و سپهری، ص. (۱۳۹۰). روابط بین هدف‌های پیشرفت، جو کلاس، توانایی و سودمندی ادراک‌شده. فصلنامة روان‌شناسیتحولی: روان‌شناسانایرانی، ۸ (۲۹)، 35-42.

اژه‌‌ای، م. ج.، ویسانی، م.، سیادت، س. س. و خضری‎آذر، ه. (1390). انگیزش تحصیلی و اضطراب آمار:  بررسی نقش میانجی راهبردهای یادگیری. مجلۀروان‌شناسی، 58 (2)، 128-110.

بردبار، م. و یوسفی، ف. (۱۳۹۵). نقش واسطه‌ای فرایندهای نظام خود و هیجان‌های تحصیلی در رابطة بین محیط حامی خودپیروی و درگیری تحصیلی. فصلنامة روان‌شناسیتحولی: روان‌شناسانایرانی، ۱۳(۴۹)، 28-13.

حجازی، ا.، نقش، ز. و سنگری، ع. ا. (1388). ادراک از ساختار کلاس و پیشرفت تحصیلی ریاضی: نقش واسطه‌ای متغیرهای انگیزشی و شناختی. مطالعاتروان‌شناختی، ۵ (4)، 66-47.

کدیور، پ.، فرزاد، و. ا.، کاوسیان، ج. و نیکدل، ف. (1388). رواسازی پرسشنامة هیجان‌های تحصیلی پکران. فصلنامۀنوآوری‌های آموزشی، ۸ (32)، 37-8.

میولر، ر. ا. (1389). پایه‌های اساسی مدل‌یابی معادلات ساختاری. ترجمة س. طالع‌پسند. سمنان: انشارات دانشگاه سمنان (تاریخ انتشار اثر اصلی، ۱۹۹۶).

Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 369-386.

Blackburn, M, (1998). Academic cheating, unpublished doctor dissertation, University of Oklahoma.

Bono, J. T. (2011). What good is engagement? Predictingacademic performance and college satisfaction frompersonality, social support, and student engagement. A dissertation presented to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Washington University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Burchinal, M. R., Roberts, J. E., Zeisel, S. A., & Rowley, S. J. (2008). Social risk and protective factors for African American children’s academic achievement and adjustment during the transition to middle school. Developmental Psychology, 44, 286-292.

Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy and relatedness: a motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology: Self- processes in development (pp. 43-77). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Self-determination research: Reflections and future directions. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook on self-determination research (pp. 431-441). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Filak, V. F., & Sheldon, K. M. (2003). Student psychological need satisfaction and college teacher-course evaluation. Educational Psychology, 23(3), 235-247.

Furrer, C. J., & Skinner, E. A. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 148-162.

Furrer, C. J., Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. R. (2014). The influence of teacher and peer relationships on students’ classroom engagement and everyday resilience. In D. J. Shernoff & J. Bempechat (Eds.), National society for the study of education yearbook: Engaging youth in schools: Empirically-based models to guide future innovations, (pp. 101-123). Columbia University: Teachers College.

Furrer, C., Skinner, E., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. A. (2006). Engagement vs. disaffectionas central constructs in the dynamics of motivational development. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Adolescence, San Francisco.

Guay, F., & Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Social context, students’ motivation, and academic achievement: Toward a process model. SocialPsychology of Education, 1, 211-233.

Guay, F., Ratelle, C. F., & Chanal, J. (2008). Optimal learning in optimal contexts: The role of self-determination in education. Canadian Psychology,49, 233–240.

Ilardi, B. C., Leone, D., Kasser, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). Employee and supervisor ratings of motivation: Main effects and discrepancies associated with job satisfaction and adjustment in a factory setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1789-1805.

Jimmerson, S. R., Campos, E., & Greif, J. L. (2003). Toward an understanding of definitions and measures of school engagement and related terms. The California School Psychologist, 8, 7-27.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Anderson, D. (1983). Social interdependence and classroom climate. Journal of Psychology, 114, 135-142.

King, B., McInerney, D., Ganotice, F., & Vilarosa, J. (2015). Positive affect catalyzes academic engagement: Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental evidence. Learning and Individual Differences, 39, 64-72.

Marks, H. M. (2000). Student engagement in instructional activity: patterns in elementary, middle and high school years. American Educational ResearchJournal, 37, 153e184. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/i248902.

Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2009). Academic resilience and academic buoyancy: Multidimensional and hierarchical conceptual framing of causes, correlates and cognate constructs. Oxford Review of Education, 35, 353-370.

Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research inEducation, 7, 133-144.

Patrick. H., Ryan, A. M., & Kaplan, A. (2007). Early Adolescents’ Perceptions of the Classroom Social Environment, Motivational Beliefs, and Engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 83–98.

Pekrun, R., Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. )2007(. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: An integrative approach to emotions in education. In P. A. Schutz, R.  Pekrun, Emotion in education (pp. 13–36). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.

Pekrun, R. (2000). A social cognitive, control value theory of achievement emotions. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivational psychology of human development (pp.143−163). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Pekrun, R. (2006). The Control-value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implication for Educational Research and Practice, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315-341

Pekrun, R., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2012). Academic emotions and student engagement. In S. Christenson, A. L., Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on studentengagement (pp. 421-439). New York: Springer.

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2005). Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). User’s manual. Department of Psychology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in student's self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91-105.

Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Reeve, J. (2012). A self-determination theory perspective on student engagement. In S. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on studentengagement (pp. 421-439). New York: Springer.

Reeve, J., & Tseng, C. M. (2011). Agency as a fourth aspect of students’ engagement during learning activities. Contemporary Educational psychology, 36, 257-267.

Reeve, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Self-determination theory: A dialectical framework for understanding the sociocultural influences on student motivation. In D. McInerney & S. Van Etten (Eds.), Research on sociocultural influences on motivationand learning: Big theories revisited (Vol. 4, pp. 31-59). New York: Information Age Publishing.

Sakiz, G. (2007). Does Teacher Affective Support Matter? An Investigation of the Relationship among Perceived Teacher Affective Support, Sense of Belonging, Academic Emotions, Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs, and academic Effort in the Middle School Mathematics Classroom, Doctoral Dissertation of Philosophy, The Ohio State University.

Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. (2012). Developmental dynamics of engagement, coping, and everyday resilience. In S. L. Christenson, A.L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook ofresearch on student engagement (pp. 21-44). New York: Springer Science.

Skinner, E. A., Kinderman, T. A., & Furrer, C. (2009). A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection: Conceptualization and assessment of children’s behavioral and emotional participation in academic activities in the classroom. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 493-525.

Skinner, E. A., Pitzer, J. R., & Brule, H. A. (2014). The role of emotion in engagement, coping, and the development of motivational resilience. In R. Pekrun & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (Eds.), International Handbook of Emotions and Education (331-347). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Skinner, E., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic? Journal of EducationalPsychology, 100, 765–781.

Su, Y. L., & Reeve, J. (2011). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of intervention programs designed to support autonomy. Educational Psychology Review,23, 159–188.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. 5th ed, Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 271-360). New York: Academic Press.

Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., & Pelletier, L. G. (1989). Construction et validation de l'Échelle de Motivation en Éducation (EME) [Construction and validation of the Academic Motivation Scale]. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 21, 323-349.

Vallerend, R. J., Pelletier,  L.G.,  Blais,  M. R.,  Briere,  N. M.,  Senecal,  C.,  & Vallieres,  E. F. (1992). The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Journal of Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 1003-1017.

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Matos, L. (2005). Examining the impact of extrinsic versus intrinsic goal framing and internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive communication style upon early adolescents’ academic achievement. ChildDevelopment, 76, 483-501.

Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: A longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 28, 12-23.

Wang, M. T., & Holcombe, R. (2010). Adolescents’ perceptions of school environment, engagement, and academic achievement in middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 47, 633-662.

Wang, M. T., & Peck, S. (2013). Adolescent educational success and mental health vary across school engagement profiles. Developmental Psychology, 49(7),1266-1276.

Wang, M. T., Brinkworth, M. E., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). The moderation effect of teacher-student relationship on the association between adolescent’s self-regulation ability, family conflict, and developmental problems. Developmental Psychology, 49, 690-705.

ابراهیمی، س.، پاکدامن، ش. و سپهری، ص. (۱۳۹۰). روابط بین هدف‌های پیشرفت، جو کلاس، توانایی و سودمندی ادراک‌شده. فصلنامة روان‌شناسیتحولی: روان‌شناسانایرانی، ۸ (۲۹)، 35-42.

اژه‌‌ای، م. ج.، ویسانی، م.، سیادت، س. س. و خضری‎آذر، ه. (1390). انگیزش تحصیلی و اضطراب آمار:  بررسی نقش میانجی راهبردهای یادگیری. مجلۀروان‌شناسی، 58 (2)، 128-110.

بردبار، م. و یوسفی، ف. (۱۳۹۵). نقش واسطه‌ای فرایندهای نظام خود و هیجان‌های تحصیلی در رابطة بین محیط حامی خودپیروی و درگیری تحصیلی. فصلنامة روان‌شناسیتحولی: روان‌شناسانایرانی، ۱۳(۴۹)، 28-13.

حجازی، ا.، نقش، ز. و سنگری، ع. ا. (1388). ادراک از ساختار کلاس و پیشرفت تحصیلی ریاضی: نقش واسطه‌ای متغیرهای انگیزشی و شناختی. مطالعاتروان‌شناختی، ۵ (4)، 66-47.

کدیور، پ.، فرزاد، و. ا.، کاوسیان، ج. و نیکدل، ف. (1388). رواسازی پرسشنامة هیجان‌های تحصیلی پکران. فصلنامۀنوآوری‌های آموزشی، ۸ (32)، 37-8.

میولر، ر. ا. (1389). پایه‌های اساسی مدل‌یابی معادلات ساختاری. ترجمة س. طالع‌پسند. سمنان: انشارات دانشگاه سمنان (تاریخ انتشار اثر اصلی، ۱۹۹۶).

Appleton, J. J., Christenson, S. L., & Furlong, M. J. (2008). Student engagement with school: Critical conceptual and methodological issues of the construct. Psychology in the Schools, 45, 369-386.

Blackburn, M, (1998). Academic cheating, unpublished doctor dissertation, University of Oklahoma.

Bono, J. T. (2011). What good is engagement? Predictingacademic performance and college satisfaction frompersonality, social support, and student engagement. A dissertation presented to the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences of Washington University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

Burchinal, M. R., Roberts, J. E., Zeisel, S. A., & Rowley, S. J. (2008). Social risk and protective factors for African American children’s academic achievement and adjustment during the transition to middle school. Developmental Psychology, 44, 286-292.

Connell, J. P., & Wellborn, J. G. (1991). Competence, autonomy and relatedness: a motivational analysis of self-system processes. In M. Gunnar & L. A. Sroufe (Eds.), Minnesota symposium on child psychology: Self- processes in development (pp. 43-77). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York: Plenum.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The ‘what’ and ‘why’ of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268.

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2002). Self-determination research: Reflections and future directions. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook on self-determination research (pp. 431-441). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.

Filak, V. F., & Sheldon, K. M. (2003). Student psychological need satisfaction and college teacher-course evaluation. Educational Psychology, 23(3), 235-247.

Furrer, C. J., & Skinner, E. A. (2003). Sense of relatedness as a factor in children’s academic engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 148-162.

Furrer, C. J., Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. R. (2014). The influence of teacher and peer relationships on students’ classroom engagement and everyday resilience. In D. J. Shernoff & J. Bempechat (Eds.), National society for the study of education yearbook: Engaging youth in schools: Empirically-based models to guide future innovations, (pp. 101-123). Columbia University: Teachers College.

Furrer, C., Skinner, E., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. A. (2006). Engagement vs. disaffectionas central constructs in the dynamics of motivational development. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Adolescence, San Francisco.

Guay, F., & Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Social context, students’ motivation, and academic achievement: Toward a process model. SocialPsychology of Education, 1, 211-233.

Guay, F., Ratelle, C. F., & Chanal, J. (2008). Optimal learning in optimal contexts: The role of self-determination in education. Canadian Psychology,49, 233–240.

Ilardi, B. C., Leone, D., Kasser, R., & Ryan, R. M. (1993). Employee and supervisor ratings of motivation: Main effects and discrepancies associated with job satisfaction and adjustment in a factory setting. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 23, 1789-1805.

Jimmerson, S. R., Campos, E., & Greif, J. L. (2003). Toward an understanding of definitions and measures of school engagement and related terms. The California School Psychologist, 8, 7-27.

Johnson, D. W., Johnson, R., & Anderson, D. (1983). Social interdependence and classroom climate. Journal of Psychology, 114, 135-142.

King, B., McInerney, D., Ganotice, F., & Vilarosa, J. (2015). Positive affect catalyzes academic engagement: Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental evidence. Learning and Individual Differences, 39, 64-72.

Marks, H. M. (2000). Student engagement in instructional activity: patterns in elementary, middle and high school years. American Educational ResearchJournal, 37, 153e184. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/i248902.

Martin, A. J., & Marsh, H. W. (2009). Academic resilience and academic buoyancy: Multidimensional and hierarchical conceptual framing of causes, correlates and cognate constructs. Oxford Review of Education, 35, 353-370.

Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research inEducation, 7, 133-144.

Patrick. H., Ryan, A. M., & Kaplan, A. (2007). Early Adolescents’ Perceptions of the Classroom Social Environment, Motivational Beliefs, and Engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 83–98.

Pekrun, R., Frenzel, A. C., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. )2007(. The control-value theory of achievement emotions: An integrative approach to emotions in education. In P. A. Schutz, R.  Pekrun, Emotion in education (pp. 13–36). Burlington, MA: Academic Press.

Pekrun, R. (2000). A social cognitive, control value theory of achievement emotions. In J. Heckhausen (Ed.), Motivational psychology of human development (pp.143−163). Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Pekrun, R. (2006). The Control-value Theory of Achievement Emotions: Assumptions, Corollaries, and Implication for Educational Research and Practice, Educational Psychology Review, 18, 315-341

Pekrun, R., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2012). Academic emotions and student engagement. In S. Christenson, A. L., Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on studentengagement (pp. 421-439). New York: Springer.

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2005). Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ). User’s manual. Department of Psychology, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Academic emotions in student's self-regulated learning and achievement: A program of qualitative and quantitative research. Educational Psychologist, 37, 91-105.

Reeve, J. (2009). Understanding motivation and emotion (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Reeve, J. (2012). A self-determination theory perspective on student engagement. In S. Christenson, A. L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of research on studentengagement (pp. 421-439). New York: Springer.

Reeve, J., & Tseng, C. M. (2011). Agency as a fourth aspect of students’ engagement during learning activities. Contemporary Educational psychology, 36, 257-267.

Reeve, J., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2004). Self-determination theory: A dialectical framework for understanding the sociocultural influences on student motivation. In D. McInerney & S. Van Etten (Eds.), Research on sociocultural influences on motivationand learning: Big theories revisited (Vol. 4, pp. 31-59). New York: Information Age Publishing.

Sakiz, G. (2007). Does Teacher Affective Support Matter? An Investigation of the Relationship among Perceived Teacher Affective Support, Sense of Belonging, Academic Emotions, Academic Self-efficacy Beliefs, and academic Effort in the Middle School Mathematics Classroom, Doctoral Dissertation of Philosophy, The Ohio State University.

Skinner, E. A., & Pitzer, J. (2012). Developmental dynamics of engagement, coping, and everyday resilience. In S. L. Christenson, A.L. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook ofresearch on student engagement (pp. 21-44). New York: Springer Science.

Skinner, E. A., Kinderman, T. A., & Furrer, C. (2009). A motivational perspective on engagement and disaffection: Conceptualization and assessment of children’s behavioral and emotional participation in academic activities in the classroom. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69, 493-525.

Skinner, E. A., Pitzer, J. R., & Brule, H. A. (2014). The role of emotion in engagement, coping, and the development of motivational resilience. In R. Pekrun & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (Eds.), International Handbook of Emotions and Education (331-347). New York: Taylor & Francis.

Skinner, E., Furrer, C., Marchand, G., & Kindermann, T. (2008). Engagement and disaffection in the classroom: Part of a larger motivational dynamic? Journal of EducationalPsychology, 100, 765–781.

Su, Y. L., & Reeve, J. (2011). A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of intervention programs designed to support autonomy. Educational Psychology Review,23, 159–188.

Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics. 5th ed, Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.

Vallerand, R. J. (1997). Toward a hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In M. P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 271-360). New York: Academic Press.

Vallerand, R. J., Blais, M. R., Briere, N. M., & Pelletier, L. G. (1989). Construction et validation de l'Échelle de Motivation en Éducation (EME) [Construction and validation of the Academic Motivation Scale]. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 21, 323-349.

Vallerend, R. J., Pelletier,  L.G.,  Blais,  M. R.,  Briere,  N. M.,  Senecal,  C.,  & Vallieres,  E. F. (1992). The Academic Motivation Scale: A measure of intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation in education. Journal of Educational and Psychological Measurement, 52, 1003-1017.

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Soenens, B., & Matos, L. (2005). Examining the impact of extrinsic versus intrinsic goal framing and internally controlling versus autonomy-supportive communication style upon early adolescents’ academic achievement. ChildDevelopment, 76, 483-501.

Wang, M. T., & Eccles, J. S. (2013). School context, achievement motivation, and academic engagement: A longitudinal study of school engagement using a multidimensional perspective. Learning and Instruction, 28, 12-23.

Wang, M. T., & Holcombe, R. (2010). Adolescents’ perceptions of school environment, engagement, and academic achievement in middle school. American Educational Research Journal, 47, 633-662.

Wang, M. T., & Peck, S. (2013). Adolescent educational success and mental health vary across school engagement profiles. Developmental Psychology, 49(7),1266-1276.

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