رابطه بین خودناتوان‌سازی و حرمت خود ناپایدار: نقش واسطه‌ای ترس‌ از‌ ارزیابی منفی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روان‌شناسی عمومی

2 استادیار دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

3 دانشیار دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

چکیده
این پژوهش با هدف تعیین نقش واسطه‌گری ترس از ارزیابی منفی در رابطه خودناتوان‎سازی و ناپایداری حرمت خود انجام شد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را کل دانش‌آموزان دختر پایه هشتم متوسطه (با میانگین سنی 14 سال) تشکیل می­دادند که در سال تحصیلی 94-1393 مشغول به تحصیل بودند. بر اساس طرح زمینه‌یابی، نمونه‌ای متشکل از 150 دختر پایه هشتم به روش نمونه‌برداری در­دسترس با استفاده از نسخه کوتاه ترس از ارزیابی منفی (FNES-B؛ لیری، 1983)، مقیاس خودناتوان‌سازی (جونز و رودولت، 1982) و مقیاس حرمت خود ناپایدار (چابرول، روسیو و کالاهان، 2006) بررسی شدند. داده‌ها با روش رگرسیون تحلیل شد و نتایج نشان داد که حرمت خود قادر به پیش­بینی هر دو بعد خودناتوان‌سازی است. نتایج از نقش واسطه‌ای ترس از ارزیابی منفی در رابطه‌ بین ابعاد خود­ناتوان‌سازی و ناپایداری حرمت خود حمایت کرد. بر اساس یافته‌های این پژوهش می‌توان نتیجه گرفت که ناپایداری حرمت خود تاحدودی از طریق ترس از ارزیابی منفی، بر خود­ناتوان‌سازی تأثیر می­گذارد. در نتیجه با تمرکز بر الگوی نظری و پرداختن به ترس از ارزیابی منفی می‌توان موجب ارتقای پایداری حرمت خود در نوجوانان شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


آزادی، ا.، فتح‎آبادی، ج. و حیدری، م. (1392). رابطه عزت‌ نفس ناپایدار و ترس از ارزیابی منفی با خود ناتوان‌سازی در نوجوانان دانش‌آموز تهرانی. فصلنامه روانشناسی تربیتی، 29 (9)، 46-23.

پاکدامن، ش. و مرتضوی‌نصیری، ف. س. (1393). سبک‌های فرزندپروری ادراک‌شده و ترس از ارزشیابی منفی: مقایسه دختران نوجوان تیزهوش و عادی. روان‌شناسی تحولی: روا‌‌ن‌شناسان ایرانی، 10(39)، 262-249.

حیدری، م. (1389). بررسی جایگاه خودناتوان‌سازی در مدل ساختاری پیش‌بینی موفقیت تحصیلی. رساله دکتری، دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران.

حیدری، م.، دهقانی، م. و خداپناهی، م. ک. (1388). بررسی تأثیر شیوه فرزندپروری ادراک‌شده و جنس بر خودناتوان‌سازی. فصلنامه خانواده‌پژوهی، 18(5)، 137-125.

شکری، آ.، گراوند، ف.، نقش، ز.، علی‌ترخان، ر. و پاییزی، م. (1387). ویژگی‌های روان‌سنجی فرم کوتاه مقیاس ترس از ارزیابی منفی. مجله روان‌پزشکی و روان‌شناسی بالینی ایران،14 (3) ، 325-316.

شمسی، گ. (1392). بررسی اثربخشی گروه و خلق‌وخو بر خودناتوانسازی دانش‌آموزان. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد،  دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران.

فراهانی، ح. و عریضی، ح. (1384). روش‌های تحقیق پیشرفته در علوم انسانی. اصفهان: جهاد دانشگاهی.

مهبد، م، و شیخ الاسلامی، ر. (1394). خودناتوان‌سازی براساس فرایندهای خانواده: اثر واسطه‎ای خودکارآمدی تحصیلی. روان‌شناسی تحولی: روان‌شناسان ایرانی، 11(44)، 404-391.

Akin, A. (2012). Self-handicapping scale: A study of validity and reliability. Egitim ve Bilim37(164), 177-188.

Alesi, M., Rappo, G., & Pepi, A. (2012). Self-esteem at school and self-handicapping in childhood: comparison of groups with learning disabilities. Psychological Reports,  111(3), 952- 962 .

Bartels, J. M., & Herman, W. E. (2011). Fear of Failure, Self-Handicapping, and Negative Emotions in Response to Failure. Online Submission.

Berglas, S., & Jones, E. E. (1978). Drug choice as a self-handicapping strategy in response to non-contingent success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36, 405-417.

Brook, C. A., & Willoughby, T. (2015). The social ties that bind: social anxiety and academic achievement across the university years. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(5), 1139-1152.

Brown, C. M., Park, S. W., & Folger, S. F. (2012). Growth motivation as a moderator of behavioral self-handicapping in women. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152(2), 136-146.

Burroughs, E. (2012). The astrobiology project: Effects on students’science aspirations and achievement, and an analysis of self-handi-capping behavior. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Maine.

Chabrol, H., Rousseau, A., & Callahan, S. (2006). Preliminary results of a scale assessing instability of self-esteem. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 38 (2), 136-141.

Chandrashekarappa, S. M., Ramakrishnaiah, N. M. M., Ram, D., & Manjunath, R. (2016). Mental health among adolescent girls–An effort to know the asso-ciation of mental disorders with socio-demographic variables. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health5(11), 2305-2311.

Chen, L. H., Wu, C. H., Kee, Y. H., Lin, M. S., & Shui, S. H. (2011). Fear of failure, 2 x 2 achievement goal and self-handicapping: An examination of hierarchical model of achievement motivation in physical education. Contemporary Educational Psychology.

Cheng, G., Zhang, D., & Ding, F. (2015). Self-esteem and fear of negative evaluation as mediators between family socioeconomic status and social anxiety in Chinese emerging adults. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 61(6), 569-576.

Collins, K. A., Westra, H. A., Dozois, D. J., & Stewart, S. H. (2005). The validity of the brief version of the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19(3), 345-359.

Coudevylle, G. R., Gernigon, C., & MartinGinis, K. A. (2011). Self-esteem, self-confidence, anxiety and claimed self-handicapping: A mediational analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(6), 670-675.

Cribb, V. L., & Haase, A. M. (2016). Girls feeling good at school: School gender environment, interna-lization and awareness of socio-cultural attitudes associations with self-esteem in adolescent girls. Journal of Adolescence, 46, 107-114.

De Castella, K., Byrne, D., & Covington, M. (2013). Unmotivated or motivated to fail? A cross-cultural study of achievement motivation, fear of failure, and student disengagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 861-880.

Del Mar Ferradás, M., Freire, C., Valle, A., & Núñez, J. C. (2016). Academic Goals and Self-Handicapping Strategies in University Students. Spanish Journal of Psychology19(24), 1-9.

Del Mar Ferradás, M., Freire, C., Valle, A., Núñez, J. C., Regueiro, B., & Vallejo, G. (2016). The relation-ship between self-esteem and self-worth protection strategies in university students. Personality and Individual Differences, 88, 236-241.

Elliot, A. J., & Thrash, T. M. (2004). The inter-generational transmission of fear of failure. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30 (8), 957-971.

Hirt, E. R., Deppe, R. K., & Gordon, L. J. (1991). Self-reported versus behavioral self-handi-capping: Empirical evidence for a theoretical distinction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(6), 981-991.

Hirt, E. R., McCrea, S. M., & Kimble, C. E. (2000). Public self-focus and sex differences in behavioral self-handicapping: Does increasing self-threat still make it “just a man’s game?”.  Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26 (9), 1131-1141.

Jain, M., & Sudhir, P. M. (2010). Dimensions of perfectionism and perfectionistic self-presen-tation in social phobia. Asian journal of Psychiatry, 3 (4), 216-221.

Kernis, M. H. (1993). The roles of stability and level of self-esteem in psychological functioning. In Self-esteem (pp. 167-182). Springer US.

Kernis, M. H., Lakey, C. E., & Heppner, W. L. (2008). Secure versus fragile high selfesteem as a predictor of verbal defensiveness: Converging findings across three different markers. Journal of Personality, 76, 477– 512.

Kimble, C. E., & Hirt, E. R. (2005). Self-focus, gender, and habitual self-handicapping: Do they make a difference in behavioral self-handi-capping?. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal33(1), 43-56.

Koinis, N. C. (2009). Self –esteem level, self esteem stability, and procrastination: predictors of Academic Achievment in first year medical students. Doctoral Dissertation of Philosophy in Psychology, Fieldin Graduate University.

Koydemir-Özden, S., & Demir, A. (2009). The relationship between perceived parental attitudes and shyness among Turkish youth: Fear of negative evaluation and self-esteem as mediators. Current Psychology, 28(3), 169-180.

Kronholm, E., Puusniekka, R., Jokela, J., Villberg, J., Urrila, A. S., Paunio, T., & Tynjälä, J. (2015). Trends in self‐reported sleep problems, tiredness and related school performance among Finnish adolescents from 1984 to 2011. Journal of sleep research24(1), 3-10.

Leary, M. R., & Shepperd, J. A. (1986). Behavioral self-handicaps versus self- reported handicaps: A conceptual note. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1265-1268.

Lupien, S. P., Seery, M. D., & Almonte, J. L. (2010). Discrepant and congruent high self-esteem: Behavioral self-handicapping as a preemptive defensive strategy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology46(6), 1105-1108.

Martin, K. A., & Brawley, L. R. (2002). Self-handicapping in physical achievement settings: the contributions of self-esteem and self-efficacy. Self and Identity, 1, 337-351.

McCrea, S. M., Hirt, E. R., & Milner, B. J. (2008). She works hard for the money: Valuing effort underlies gender differences in behavioral self-handicapping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology44(2), 292-311.

Menatti, A. R., DeBoer, L. B. H., Weeks, J. W., & Heimberg, R. G. (2015). Social anxiety and associations with eating psychopathology: Mediating effects of fears of evaluation. Body Image, 14, 20-28.

Midgley, C., & Urdan, T. (2001). Academic self-handicapping and achievement goals: A further examination. Contemporary Educational Psy-chology, 26(1), 61-75.

Myers, E. M., & Zeigler-Hill, V. (2008). No shades of gray: Splitting and self- esteem instability. Per-sonality and Individual Differences, 45, 139-145.

Newman, L. S., & Wadas, R. F. (1997). When stakes are higher: Self- esteem instability and self-handicapping. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 51(4), 858-873.

Niiya, Y., Brook, A. T., & Crocker, J. (2010). Contingent self-worth and self-handicapping: Do incremental theorists protect self-esteem? Self and Identity, 9(3), 276-297.

Prapavessis, H., & Grove, J. R. (1998). Self-handi-capping and self-esteem. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology10(2), 175-184.

Rapee, R. M., & Heimbrg, R. G. (1997). A Cognitive Behavioral Model of Anxiety in Social Phobia. Behavior Research and Therapy, 35, 741-756.

Rhodewalt, F., & Hill, S. K. (1995). Self-handicapping in the classroom: The effects of claimed self-handicaps on responses to academic failure. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 16(4), 397-416

Rodebaugh, T. L., Woods, C. M., Thissen, D. M., Heimberg, R. G., Chambless, D. L., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). More information from fewer questions: the factor structure and item properties of the original and brief fear of negative evaluation scale. Psychological Assessment, 16(2), 169-181.

Romeo, R. D. (2013). The teenage brain: The stress response and the adolescent brain. Current Direc-tions in Psychological Science22(2), 140-145.

Schwinger, M., Wirthwein, L., Lemmer, G., & Steinmayr, R. (2014). Academic Self-Handicapping and Achievement: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106 (30), 744-761.

Shumaker, E. A., & Rodebaugh, Th. L. (2009). Perfectionism and social anxiety: Rethinking the role of high standards. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40(3), 423-433.

Snyder, C. R., & Higgins, R. L. (1988). Excuses: their effective role in the negotiation of reality. Psychological Bulletin, 104, 23-35.

Snyder, K. E., Malin, J. L., Dent, A. L., & Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2014). The message matters: The role of implicit beliefs about gifted-ness and failure experiences in academic self-handicapping. Journal of Educational Psycho-logy, 106(1), 230-241.

Stewart, M. A., & De George-Walker, L. (2014). Self-handicapping, perfectionism, locus of control and self-efficacy: A path model. Personality and Individual Differences66, 160-164.

Sultan, S., & Kanwal, F. (2014). Gender Differences in Self-handicapping: The Role of Self-esteem and Fear of Negative Evaluation. Journal of Gender & Social Issues, 13(1), 45-56.

Tandler, S., Schwinger, M., Kaminski, K., & Stiensmeier-Pelster, J. (2014). Self-affirmation buffers claimed self-handicapping? A test of contextual and individual moderators. Psychology, 5, 321-327.

Tice, D. M. (1991). Esteem protection or enhancement? Self-handicapping motives and attributions differ by trait self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(5), 711-725.

Török, L., Szabó, Z. P., & Boda-Ujlaky, J. (2014). Self-esteem, self-conscious emotions, resilience, trait anxiety and their relation to self-handi-capping tendencies. Review of Psychology, 21(2), 123-130.

Van Stralen, M. (2015). Fear of Failure and Self-Handicapping Behaviours in Tennis: Should All Junior Players Learn to “Tank”? Retrieved 5 May, from www. stms-web. org, 72.

Wach, F. S., Spengler, M., Gottschling, J., & Spinath, F. M. (2015). Sex differences in secondary school achievement–The contribution of self-perceived abilities and fear of failure. Learning and Instruction, 36, 104-112.

Waschull, S. B., & Kernis, M. H. (1996). Level and stability of self-esteem as predictors of children's intrinsic motivation and reasons for anger. Perso-nality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(1), 4-13.

Watson, D., & Friend, R. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Consulting
and Clinical Psychology
, 33(4), 448.

Wusik, M. F., & Axsom, D. (2016). Socially Positive Behaviors as Self-Handicapping. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 35(6), 494.

Yavuzera, Y. (2015). Investigating the Relationship between Self-Handicapping Tendencies, Self-Esteem and Cognitive Distortions. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 4, 879-890.

Zeigler-Hill, V., & Showers, C. J. (2007). Self-structure and selfesteem stability: The hidden vulnerability of compartmentalization. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 143-159.

/